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OgreTerrainRenderable.cpp

/*
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
This source file is part of OGRE
(Object-oriented Graphics Rendering Engine)
For the latest info, see http://www.ogre3d.org/

Copyright (c) 2000-2006 Torus Knot Software Ltd
Also see acknowledgements in Readme.html

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with
this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA, or go to
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.txt.

You may alternatively use this source under the terms of a specific version of
the OGRE Unrestricted License provided you have obtained such a license from
Torus Knot Software Ltd.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
*/
/***************************************************************************
terrainrenderable.cpp  -  description
-------------------
begin                : Sat Oct 5 2002
copyright            : (C) 2002 by Jon Anderson
email                : janders@users.sf.net

Enhancements 2003 - 2004 (C) The OGRE Team

***************************************************************************/

#include "OgreTerrainRenderable.h"
#include "OgreSceneNode.h"
#include "OgreRenderQueue.h"
#include "OgreRenderOperation.h"
#include "OgreCamera.h"
#include "OgreRoot.h"
#include "OgreTerrainSceneManager.h"
#include "OgreLogManager.h"
#include "OgreStringConverter.h"
#include "OgreViewport.h"
#include "OgreException.h"

namespace Ogre
{
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    #define MAIN_BINDING 0
    #define DELTA_BINDING 1
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    String TerrainRenderable::mType = "TerrainMipMap";
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    TerrainRenderable::TerrainRenderable(const String& name, TerrainSceneManager* tsm)
        : Renderable(), MovableObject(name), mSceneManager(tsm), mTerrain(0), mDeltaBuffers(0), mPositionBuffer(0)
    {
        mForcedRenderLevel = -1;
        mLastNextLevel = -1;

        mMinLevelDistSqr = 0;

        mInit = false;
        mLightListDirty = true;
            MovableObject::mCastShadows = false;

        for ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
        {
            mNeighbors[ i ] = 0;
        }

            mOptions = &(mSceneManager->getOptions());


    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    TerrainRenderable::~TerrainRenderable()
    {

        deleteGeometry();
    }
      //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00092       uint32 TerrainRenderable::getTypeFlags(void) const
      {
            // return world flag
            return SceneManager::WORLD_GEOMETRY_TYPE_MASK;
      }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    void TerrainRenderable::deleteGeometry()
    {
        if(mTerrain)
            delete mTerrain;

        if (mPositionBuffer)
            delete [] mPositionBuffer;

        if (mDeltaBuffers)
            delete [] mDeltaBuffers;

        if ( mMinLevelDistSqr != 0 )
            delete [] mMinLevelDistSqr;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00113     void TerrainRenderable::initialise(int startx, int startz,  
        Real* pageHeightData)
    {

        if ( mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel != 0 )
        {
            int i = ( int ) 1 << ( mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel - 1 ) ;

            if ( ( i + 1 ) > mOptions->tileSize )
            {
                printf( "Invalid maximum mipmap specifed, must be n, such that 2^(n-1)+1 < tileSize \n" );
                return ;
            }
        }

        deleteGeometry();

        //calculate min and max heights;
        Real min = 256000, max = 0;

        mTerrain = new VertexData;
        mTerrain->vertexStart = 0;
        mTerrain->vertexCount = mOptions->tileSize * mOptions->tileSize;

        VertexDeclaration* decl = mTerrain->vertexDeclaration;
        VertexBufferBinding* bind = mTerrain->vertexBufferBinding;

        // positions
        size_t offset = 0;
        decl->addElement(MAIN_BINDING, offset, VET_FLOAT3, VES_POSITION);
        offset += VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_FLOAT3);
        if (mOptions->lit)
        {
            decl->addElement(MAIN_BINDING, offset, VET_FLOAT3, VES_NORMAL);
            offset += VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_FLOAT3);
        }
        // texture coord sets
        decl->addElement(MAIN_BINDING, offset, VET_FLOAT2, VES_TEXTURE_COORDINATES, 0);
        offset += VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_FLOAT2);
        decl->addElement(MAIN_BINDING, offset, VET_FLOAT2, VES_TEXTURE_COORDINATES, 1);
        offset += VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_FLOAT2);
        if (mOptions->coloured)
        {
            decl->addElement(MAIN_BINDING, offset, VET_COLOUR, VES_DIFFUSE);
            offset += VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_COLOUR);
        }

        // Create shared vertex buffer
        mMainBuffer =
            HardwareBufferManager::getSingleton().createVertexBuffer(
            decl->getVertexSize(MAIN_BINDING),
            mTerrain->vertexCount, 
            HardwareBuffer::HBU_STATIC_WRITE_ONLY);
        // Create system memory copy with just positions in it, for use in simple reads
        mPositionBuffer = new float[mTerrain->vertexCount * 3];

        bind->setBinding(MAIN_BINDING, mMainBuffer);

        if (mOptions->lodMorph)
        {
            // Create additional element for delta
            decl->addElement(DELTA_BINDING, 0, VET_FLOAT1, VES_BLEND_WEIGHTS);
            // NB binding is not set here, it is set when deriving the LOD
        }


        mInit = true;

        mRenderLevel = 1;

        mMinLevelDistSqr = new Real[ mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel ];

        int endx = startx + mOptions->tileSize;

        int endz = startz + mOptions->tileSize;

        Vector3 left, down, here;

        const VertexElement* poselem = decl->findElementBySemantic(VES_POSITION);
        const VertexElement* texelem0 = decl->findElementBySemantic(VES_TEXTURE_COORDINATES, 0);
        const VertexElement* texelem1 = decl->findElementBySemantic(VES_TEXTURE_COORDINATES, 1);
        float* pSysPos = mPositionBuffer;

        unsigned char* pBase = static_cast<unsigned char*>(mMainBuffer->lock(HardwareBuffer::HBL_DISCARD));

        for ( int j = startz; j < endz; j++ )
        {
            for ( int i = startx; i < endx; i++ )
            {
                float *pPos, *pTex0, *pTex1;
                poselem->baseVertexPointerToElement(pBase, &pPos);
                texelem0->baseVertexPointerToElement(pBase, &pTex0);
                texelem1->baseVertexPointerToElement(pBase, &pTex1);
    
                Real height = pageHeightData[j * mOptions->pageSize + i];
                height = height * mOptions->scale.y; // scale height 

                *pSysPos++ = *pPos++ = ( float ) i * mOptions->scale.x; //x
                *pSysPos++ = *pPos++ = height; // y
                *pSysPos++ = *pPos++ = ( float ) j * mOptions->scale.z; //z

                *pTex0++ = ( float ) i / ( float ) ( mOptions->pageSize - 1 );
                *pTex0++ = ( float ) j / ( float ) ( mOptions->pageSize - 1 );

                *pTex1++ = ( ( float ) i / ( float ) ( mOptions->tileSize - 1 ) ) * mOptions->detailTile;
                *pTex1++ = ( ( float ) j / ( float ) ( mOptions->tileSize - 1 ) ) * mOptions->detailTile;

                if ( height < min )
                    min = ( Real ) height;

                if ( height > max )
                    max = ( Real ) height;

                pBase += mMainBuffer->getVertexSize();
            }
        }

        mMainBuffer->unlock();

        mBounds.setExtents( 
            ( Real ) startx * mOptions->scale.x, 
            min, 
            ( Real ) startz * mOptions->scale.z,
            ( Real ) ( endx - 1 ) * mOptions->scale.x, 
            max, 
            ( Real ) ( endz - 1 ) * mOptions->scale.z );


        mCenter = Vector3( ( startx * mOptions->scale.x + (endx - 1) * mOptions->scale.x ) / 2,
            ( min + max ) / 2,
            ( startz * mOptions->scale.z + (endz - 1) * mOptions->scale.z ) / 2 );

        mBoundingRadius = Math::Sqrt(
            Math::Sqr(max - min) +
            Math::Sqr((endx - 1 - startx) * mOptions->scale.x) +
            Math::Sqr((endz - 1 - startz) * mOptions->scale.z)) / 2;

        // Create delta buffer list if required to morph
        if (mOptions->lodMorph)
        {
            // Create delta buffer for all except the lowest mip
            mDeltaBuffers = new HardwareVertexBufferSharedPtr[mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel - 1];
        }

        Real C = _calculateCFactor();

        _calculateMinLevelDist2( C );

    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00263     void TerrainRenderable::_getNormalAt( float x, float z, Vector3 * result )
    {

        assert(mOptions->lit && "No normals present");

        Vector3 here, left, down;
        here.x = x;
        here.y = getHeightAt( x, z );
        here.z = z;

        left.x = x - 1;
        left.y = getHeightAt( x - 1, z );
        left.z = z;

        down.x = x;
        down.y = getHeightAt( x, z + 1 );
        down.z = z + 1;

        left = left - here;

        down = down - here;

        left.normalise();
        down.normalise();

        *result = left.crossProduct( down );
        result -> normalise();

        // result->x = - result->x;
        // result->y = - result->y;
        // result->z = - result->z;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00296     void TerrainRenderable::_calculateNormals()
    {

        Vector3 norm;

        assert (mOptions->lit && "No normals present");

        HardwareVertexBufferSharedPtr vbuf = 
            mTerrain->vertexBufferBinding->getBuffer(MAIN_BINDING);
        const VertexElement* elem = mTerrain->vertexDeclaration->findElementBySemantic(VES_NORMAL);
        unsigned char* pBase = static_cast<unsigned char*>( vbuf->lock(HardwareBuffer::HBL_DISCARD) );
        float* pNorm;

        for ( size_t j = 0; j < mOptions->tileSize; j++ )
        {
            for ( size_t i = 0; i < mOptions->tileSize; i++ )
            {

                _getNormalAt( _vertex( i, j, 0 ), _vertex( i, j, 2 ), &norm );

                //  printf( "Normal = %5f,%5f,%5f\n", norm.x, norm.y, norm.z );
                elem->baseVertexPointerToElement(pBase, &pNorm);
                *pNorm++ = norm.x;
                *pNorm++ = norm.y;
                *pNorm++ = norm.z;
                pBase += vbuf->getVertexSize();
            }

        }
        vbuf->unlock();
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00328     void TerrainRenderable::_notifyCurrentCamera( Camera* cam )
    {
            MovableObject::_notifyCurrentCamera(cam);

        if ( mForcedRenderLevel >= 0 )
        {
            mRenderLevel = mForcedRenderLevel;
            return ;
        }


        Vector3 cpos = cam -> getDerivedPosition();
        const AxisAlignedBox& aabb = getWorldBoundingBox(true);
        Vector3 diff(0, 0, 0);
        diff.makeFloor(cpos - aabb.getMinimum());
        diff.makeCeil(cpos - aabb.getMaximum());

        Real L = diff.squaredLength();

        mRenderLevel = -1;

        for ( int i = 0; i < mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel; i++ )
        {
            if ( mMinLevelDistSqr[ i ] > L )
            {
                mRenderLevel = i - 1;
                break;
            }
        }

        if ( mRenderLevel < 0 )
            mRenderLevel = mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel - 1;

        if (mOptions->lodMorph)
        {
            // Get the next LOD level down
            int nextLevel = mNextLevelDown[mRenderLevel];
            if (nextLevel == 0)
            {
                // No next level, so never morph
                mLODMorphFactor = 0;
            }
            else
            {
                // Set the morph such that the morph happens in the last 0.25 of
                // the distance range
                Real range = mMinLevelDistSqr[nextLevel] - mMinLevelDistSqr[mRenderLevel];
                if (range)
                {
                    Real percent = (L - mMinLevelDistSqr[mRenderLevel]) / range;
                    // scale result so that msLODMorphStart == 0, 1 == 1, clamp to 0 below that
                    Real rescale = 1.0f / (1.0f - mOptions->lodMorphStart);
                    mLODMorphFactor = std::max((percent - mOptions->lodMorphStart) * rescale, 
                                    static_cast<Real>(0.0));
                }
                else
                {
                    // Identical ranges
                    mLODMorphFactor = 0.0f;
                }

                assert(mLODMorphFactor >= 0 && mLODMorphFactor <= 1);
            }

            // Bind the correct delta buffer if it has changed
            // nextLevel - 1 since the first entry is for LOD 1 (since LOD 0 never needs it)
            if (mLastNextLevel != nextLevel)
            {
                if (nextLevel > 0)
                {
                    mTerrain->vertexBufferBinding->setBinding(DELTA_BINDING, 
                        mDeltaBuffers[nextLevel - 1]);
                }
                else
                {
                    // bind dummy (incase bindings checked)
                    mTerrain->vertexBufferBinding->setBinding(DELTA_BINDING, 
                        mDeltaBuffers[0]);
                }
            }
            mLastNextLevel = nextLevel;

        }

    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00414     void TerrainRenderable::_updateRenderQueue( RenderQueue* queue )
    {
        // Notify need to calculate light list when our sending to render queue
        mLightListDirty = true;

        queue->addRenderable(this, mRenderQueueID);
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00422     void TerrainRenderable::getRenderOperation( RenderOperation& op )
    {
        //setup indexes for vertices and uvs...

        assert( mInit && "Uninitialized" );

        op.useIndexes = true;
        op.operationType = mOptions->useTriStrips ? 
            RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_STRIP : RenderOperation::OT_TRIANGLE_LIST;
        op.vertexData = mTerrain;
        op.indexData = getIndexData();


    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00437     void TerrainRenderable::getWorldTransforms( Matrix4* xform ) const
    {
        *xform = mParentNode->_getFullTransform();
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00442     const Quaternion& TerrainRenderable::getWorldOrientation(void) const
    {
        return mParentNode->_getDerivedOrientation();
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00447     const Vector3& TerrainRenderable::getWorldPosition(void) const
    {
        return mParentNode->_getDerivedPosition();
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    bool TerrainRenderable::_checkSize( int n )
    {
        for ( int i = 0; i < 10; i++ )
        {
            if ( ( ( 1 << i ) + 1 ) == n )
                return true;
        }

        return false;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    void TerrainRenderable::_calculateMinLevelDist2( Real C )
    {
        //level 0 has no delta.
        mMinLevelDistSqr[ 0 ] = 0;

        int i, j;

        for ( int level = 1; level < mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel; level++ )
        {
            mMinLevelDistSqr[ level ] = 0;

            int step = 1 << level;
            // The step of the next higher LOD
            int higherstep = step >> 1;

            float* pDeltas = 0;
            if (mOptions->lodMorph)
            {
                // Create a set of delta values (store at index - 1 since 0 has none)
                mDeltaBuffers[level - 1]  = createDeltaBuffer();
                // Lock, but don't discard (we want the pre-initialised zeros)
                pDeltas = static_cast<float*>(
                    mDeltaBuffers[level - 1]->lock(HardwareBuffer::HBL_NORMAL));
            }

            for ( j = 0; j < mOptions->tileSize - step; j += step )
            {
                for ( i = 0; i < mOptions->tileSize - step; i += step )
                {
                    /* Form planes relating to the lower detail tris to be produced
                    For tri lists and even tri strip rows, they are this shape:
                    x---x
                    | / |
                    x---x
                    For odd tri strip rows, they are this shape:
                    x---x
                    | \ |
                    x---x
                    */

                    Vector3 v1(_vertex( i, j, 0 ), _vertex( i, j, 1 ), _vertex( i, j, 2 ));
                    Vector3 v2(_vertex( i + step, j, 0 ), _vertex( i + step, j, 1 ), _vertex( i + step, j, 2 ));
                    Vector3 v3(_vertex( i, j + step, 0 ), _vertex( i, j + step, 1 ), _vertex( i, j + step, 2 ));
                    Vector3 v4(_vertex( i + step, j + step, 0 ), _vertex( i + step, j + step, 1 ), _vertex( i + step, j + step, 2 ));

                    Plane t1, t2;
                    bool backwardTri = false;
                    if (!mOptions->useTriStrips || j % 2 == 0)
                    {
                        t1.redefine(v1, v3, v2);
                        t2.redefine(v2, v3, v4);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        t1.redefine(v1, v3, v4);
                        t2.redefine(v1, v4, v2);
                        backwardTri = true;
                    }

                    // include the bottommost row of vertices if this is the last row
                    int zubound = (j == (mOptions->tileSize - step)? step : step - 1);
                    for ( int z = 0; z <= zubound; z++ )
                    {
                        // include the rightmost col of vertices if this is the last col
                        int xubound = (i == (mOptions->tileSize - step)? step : step - 1);
                        for ( int x = 0; x <= xubound; x++ )
                        {
                            int fulldetailx = i + x;
                            int fulldetailz = j + z;
                            if ( fulldetailx % step == 0 && 
                                fulldetailz % step == 0 )
                            {
                                // Skip, this one is a vertex at this level
                                continue;
                            }

                            Real zpct = (Real)z / (Real)step;
                            Real xpct = (Real)x / (Real)step;

                            //interpolated height
                            Vector3 actualPos(
                                _vertex( fulldetailx, fulldetailz, 0 ), 
                                _vertex( fulldetailx, fulldetailz, 1 ), 
                                _vertex( fulldetailx, fulldetailz, 2 ));
                            Real interp_h;
                            // Determine which tri we're on 
                            if ((xpct + zpct <= 1.0f && !backwardTri) ||
                                (xpct + (1-zpct) <= 1.0f && backwardTri))
                            {
                                // Solve for x/z
                                interp_h = 
                                    (-(t1.normal.x * actualPos.x)
                                    - t1.normal.z * actualPos.z
                                    - t1.d) / t1.normal.y;
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                // Second tri
                                interp_h = 
                                    (-(t2.normal.x * actualPos.x)
                                    - t2.normal.z * actualPos.z
                                    - t2.d) / t2.normal.y;
                            }

                            Real actual_h = _vertex( fulldetailx, fulldetailz, 1 );
                            Real delta = fabs( interp_h - actual_h );

                            Real D2 = delta * delta * C * C;

                            if ( mMinLevelDistSqr[ level ] < D2 )
                                mMinLevelDistSqr[ level ] = D2;

                            // Should be save height difference?
                            // Don't morph along edges
                            if (mOptions->lodMorph && 
                                fulldetailx != 0  && fulldetailx != (mOptions->tileSize - 1) && 
                                fulldetailz != 0  && fulldetailz != (mOptions->tileSize - 1) )
                            {
                                // Save height difference 
                                pDeltas[fulldetailx + (fulldetailz * mOptions->tileSize)] = 
                                    interp_h - actual_h;
                            }

                        }

                    }
                }
            }

            // Unlock morph deltas if required
            if (mOptions->lodMorph)
            {
                mDeltaBuffers[level - 1]->unlock();
            }
        }



        // Post validate the whole set
        for ( i = 1; i < mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel; i++ )
        {

            // Make sure no LOD transition within the tile
            // This is especially a problem when using large tiles with flat areas
            /* Hmm, this can look bad on some areas, disable for now
            Vector3 delta(_vertex(0,0,0), mCenter.y, _vertex(0,0,2));
            delta = delta - mCenter;
            Real minDist = delta.squaredLength();
            mMinLevelDistSqr[ i ] = std::max(mMinLevelDistSqr[ i ], minDist);
            */

            //make sure the levels are increasing...
            if ( mMinLevelDistSqr[ i ] < mMinLevelDistSqr[ i - 1 ] )
            {
                mMinLevelDistSqr[ i ] = mMinLevelDistSqr[ i - 1 ];
            }
        }

        // Now reverse traverse the list setting the 'next level down'
        Real lastDist = -1;
        int lastIndex = 0;
        for (i = mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel - 1; i >= 0; --i)
        {
            if (i == mOptions->maxGeoMipMapLevel - 1)
            {
                // Last one is always 0
                lastIndex = i;
                lastDist = mMinLevelDistSqr[i];
                mNextLevelDown[i] = 0;
            }
            else
            {
                mNextLevelDown[i] = lastIndex;
                if (mMinLevelDistSqr[i] != lastDist)
                {
                    lastIndex = i;
                    lastDist = mMinLevelDistSqr[i];
                }
            }

        }


    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    void TerrainRenderable::_adjustRenderLevel( int i )
    {

        mRenderLevel = i;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
    Real TerrainRenderable::_calculateCFactor()
    {
        Real A, T;

        if (!mOptions->primaryCamera)
        {
            OGRE_EXCEPT(Exception::ERR_ITEM_NOT_FOUND, 
                "You have not created a camera yet!", 
                "TerrainRenderable::_calculateCFactor");
        }

        //A = 1 / Math::Tan(Math::AngleUnitsToRadians(opts.primaryCamera->getFOVy()));
        // Turn off detail compression at higher FOVs
        A = 1.0f;

        int vertRes = mOptions->primaryCamera->getViewport()->getActualHeight();

        T = 2 * ( Real ) mOptions->maxPixelError / ( Real ) vertRes;

        return A / T;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00676     float TerrainRenderable::getHeightAt( float x, float z )
    {
        Vector3 start;
        Vector3 end;

        start.x = _vertex( 0, 0, 0 );
        start.y = _vertex( 0, 0, 1 );
        start.z = _vertex( 0, 0, 2 );

        end.x = _vertex( mOptions->tileSize - 1, mOptions->tileSize - 1, 0 );
        end.y = _vertex( mOptions->tileSize - 1, mOptions->tileSize - 1, 1 );
        end.z = _vertex( mOptions->tileSize - 1, mOptions->tileSize - 1, 2 );

        /* Safety catch, if the point asked for is outside
        * of this tile, it will ask the appropriate tile
        */

        if ( x < start.x )
        {
            if ( mNeighbors[ WEST ] != 0 )
                return mNeighbors[ WEST ] ->getHeightAt( x, z );
            else
                x = start.x;
        }

        if ( x > end.x )
        {
            if ( mNeighbors[ EAST ] != 0 )
                return mNeighbors[ EAST ] ->getHeightAt( x, z );
            else
                x = end.x;
        }

        if ( z < start.z )
        {
            if ( mNeighbors[ NORTH ] != 0 )
                return mNeighbors[ NORTH ] ->getHeightAt( x, z );
            else
                z = start.z;
        }

        if ( z > end.z )
        {
            if ( mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] != 0 )
                return mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] ->getHeightAt( x, z );
            else
                z = end.z;
        }



        float x_pct = ( x - start.x ) / ( end.x - start.x );
        float z_pct = ( z - start.z ) / ( end.z - start.z );

        float x_pt = x_pct * ( float ) ( mOptions->tileSize - 1 );
        float z_pt = z_pct * ( float ) ( mOptions->tileSize - 1 );

        int x_index = ( int ) x_pt;
        int z_index = ( int ) z_pt;

        // If we got to the far right / bottom edge, move one back
        if (x_index == mOptions->tileSize - 1)
        {
            --x_index;
            x_pct = 1.0f;
        }
        else
        {
            // get remainder
            x_pct = x_pt - x_index;
        }
        if (z_index == mOptions->tileSize - 1)
        {
            --z_index;
            z_pct = 1.0f;
        }
        else
        {
            z_pct = z_pt - z_index;
        }

        //bilinear interpolate to find the height.

        float t1 = _vertex( x_index, z_index, 1 );
        float t2 = _vertex( x_index + 1, z_index, 1 );
        float b1 = _vertex( x_index, z_index + 1, 1 );
        float b2 = _vertex( x_index + 1, z_index + 1, 1 );

        float midpoint = (b1 + t2) / 2.0;

        if (x_pct + z_pct <= 1) {
            b2 = midpoint + (midpoint - t1);
        } else {
            t1 = midpoint + (midpoint - b2);
        }

        float t = ( t1 * ( 1 - x_pct ) ) + ( t2 * ( x_pct ) );
        float b = ( b1 * ( 1 - x_pct ) ) + ( b2 * ( x_pct ) );

        float h = ( t * ( 1 - z_pct ) ) + ( b * ( z_pct ) );

        return h;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00780     bool TerrainRenderable::intersectSegment( const Vector3 & start, const Vector3 & end, Vector3 * result )
    {
        Vector3 dir = end - start;
        Vector3 ray = start;

        //special case...
        if ( dir.x == 0 && dir.z == 0 )
        {
            if ( ray.y <= getHeightAt( ray.x, ray.z ) )
            {
                if ( result != 0 )
                    * result = start;

                return true;
            }
        }

        dir.normalise();

        //dir.x *= mScale.x;
        //dir.y *= mScale.y;
        //dir.z *= mScale.z;

        const AxisAlignedBox& box = getBoundingBox();
        //start with the next one...
        ray += dir;


        while ( ! ( ( ray.x < box.getMinimum().x ) ||
            ( ray.x > box.getMaximum().x ) ||
            ( ray.z < box.getMinimum().z ) ||
            ( ray.z > box.getMaximum().z ) ) )
        {


            float h = getHeightAt( ray.x, ray.z );

            if ( ray.y <= h )
            {
                if ( result != 0 )
                    * result = ray;

                return true;
            }

            else
            {
                ray += dir;
            }

        }

        if ( ray.x < box.getMinimum().x && mNeighbors[ WEST ] != 0 )
            return mNeighbors[ WEST ] ->intersectSegment( ray, end, result );
        else if ( ray.z < box.getMinimum().z && mNeighbors[ NORTH ] != 0 )
            return mNeighbors[ NORTH ] ->intersectSegment( ray, end, result );
        else if ( ray.x > box.getMaximum().x && mNeighbors[ EAST ] != 0 )
            return mNeighbors[ EAST ] ->intersectSegment( ray, end, result );
        else if ( ray.z > box.getMaximum().z && mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] != 0 )
            return mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] ->intersectSegment( ray, end, result );
        else
        {
            if ( result != 0 )
                * result = Vector3( -1, -1, -1 );

            return false;
        }
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00849     void TerrainRenderable::_generateVertexLighting( const Vector3 &sunlight, ColourValue ambient )
    {

        Vector3 pt;
        Vector3 normal;
        Vector3 light;

        HardwareVertexBufferSharedPtr vbuf = 
            mTerrain->vertexBufferBinding->getBuffer(MAIN_BINDING);
        const VertexElement* elem = mTerrain->vertexDeclaration->findElementBySemantic(VES_DIFFUSE);
        //for each point in the terrain, see if it's in the line of sight for the sun.
        for ( size_t i = 0; i < mOptions->tileSize; i++ )
        {
            for ( size_t j = 0; j < mOptions->tileSize; j++ )
            {
                //  printf( "Checking %f,%f,%f ", pt.x, pt.y, pt.z );
                pt.x = _vertex( i, j, 0 );
                pt.y = _vertex( i, j, 1 );
                pt.z = _vertex( i, j, 2 );

                light = sunlight - pt;

                light.normalise();

                if ( ! intersectSegment( pt, sunlight, 0 ) )
                {
                    //
                    _getNormalAt( _vertex( i, j, 0 ), _vertex( i, j, 2 ), &normal );

                    float l = light.dotProduct( normal );

                    ColourValue v;
                    v.r = ambient.r + l;
                    v.g = ambient.g + l;
                    v.b = ambient.b + l;

                    if ( v.r > 1 ) v.r = 1;

                    if ( v.g > 1 ) v.g = 1;

                    if ( v.b > 1 ) v.b = 1;

                    if ( v.r < 0 ) v.r = 0;

                    if ( v.g < 0 ) v.g = 0;

                    if ( v.b < 0 ) v.b = 0;

                    RGBA colour;
                    Root::getSingleton().convertColourValue( v, &colour );
                    vbuf->writeData(
                        (_index( i, j ) * vbuf->getVertexSize()) + elem->getOffset(),
                        sizeof(RGBA), &colour);
                }

                else
                {
                    RGBA colour;
                    Root::getSingleton().convertColourValue( ambient, &colour );

                    vbuf->writeData(
                        (_index( i, j ) * vbuf->getVertexSize()) + elem->getOffset(), 
                        sizeof(RGBA), &colour);
                }

            }

        }

        printf( "." );
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00921     Real TerrainRenderable::getSquaredViewDepth(const Camera* cam) const
    {
        Vector3 diff = mCenter - cam->getDerivedPosition();
        // Use squared length to avoid square root
        return diff.squaredLength();
    }

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00929     const LightList& TerrainRenderable::getLights(void) const
    {
        if (mLightListDirty)
        {
            getParentSceneNode()->getCreator()->_populateLightList(
                mCenter, this->getBoundingRadius(), mLightList);
            mLightListDirty = false;
        }
        return mLightList;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
00940     IndexData* TerrainRenderable::getIndexData(void)
    {
        unsigned int stitchFlags = 0;

        if ( mNeighbors[ EAST ] != 0 && mNeighbors[ EAST ] -> mRenderLevel > mRenderLevel )
        {
            stitchFlags |= STITCH_EAST;
            stitchFlags |= 
                (mNeighbors[ EAST ] -> mRenderLevel - mRenderLevel) << STITCH_EAST_SHIFT;
        }

        if ( mNeighbors[ WEST ] != 0 && mNeighbors[ WEST ] -> mRenderLevel > mRenderLevel )
        {
            stitchFlags |= STITCH_WEST;
            stitchFlags |= 
                (mNeighbors[ WEST ] -> mRenderLevel - mRenderLevel) << STITCH_WEST_SHIFT;
        }

        if ( mNeighbors[ NORTH ] != 0 && mNeighbors[ NORTH ] -> mRenderLevel > mRenderLevel )
        {
            stitchFlags |= STITCH_NORTH;
            stitchFlags |= 
                (mNeighbors[ NORTH ] -> mRenderLevel - mRenderLevel) << STITCH_NORTH_SHIFT;
        }

        if ( mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] != 0 && mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] -> mRenderLevel > mRenderLevel )
        {
            stitchFlags |= STITCH_SOUTH;
            stitchFlags |= 
                (mNeighbors[ SOUTH ] -> mRenderLevel - mRenderLevel) << STITCH_SOUTH_SHIFT;
        }

        // Check preexisting
            LevelArray& levelIndex = mSceneManager->_getLevelIndex();
        IndexMap::iterator ii = levelIndex[ mRenderLevel ]->find( stitchFlags );
        IndexData* indexData;
        if ( ii == levelIndex[ mRenderLevel ]->end())
        {
            // Create
            if (mOptions->useTriStrips)
            {
                indexData = generateTriStripIndexes(stitchFlags);
            }
            else
            {
                indexData = generateTriListIndexes(stitchFlags);
            }
            levelIndex[ mRenderLevel ]->insert(
                IndexMap::value_type(stitchFlags, indexData));
        }
        else
        {
            indexData = ii->second;
        }


        return indexData;


    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01001     IndexData* TerrainRenderable::generateTriStripIndexes(unsigned int stitchFlags)
    {
        // The step used for the current level
        int step = 1 << mRenderLevel;
        // The step used for the lower level
        int lowstep = 1 << (mRenderLevel + 1);

        int numIndexes = 0;

        // Calculate the number of indexes required
        // This is the number of 'cells' at this detail level x 2
        // plus 3 degenerates to turn corners
        int numTrisAcross = (((mOptions->tileSize-1) / step) * 2) + 3;
        // Num indexes is number of tris + 2
        int new_length = numTrisAcross * ((mOptions->tileSize-1) / step) + 2;
        //this is the maximum for a level.  It wastes a little, but shouldn't be a problem.

        IndexData* indexData = new IndexData;
        indexData->indexBuffer = 
            HardwareBufferManager::getSingleton().createIndexBuffer(
            HardwareIndexBuffer::IT_16BIT,
            new_length, HardwareBuffer::HBU_STATIC_WRITE_ONLY);//, false);

        mSceneManager->_getIndexCache().mCache.push_back( indexData );

        unsigned short* pIdx = static_cast<unsigned short*>(
            indexData->indexBuffer->lock(0, 
            indexData->indexBuffer->getSizeInBytes(), 
            HardwareBuffer::HBL_DISCARD));

        // Stripified mesh
        for ( int j = 0; j < mOptions->tileSize - 1; j += step )
        {
            int i;
            // Forward strip
            // We just do the |/ here, final | done after
            for ( i = 0; i < mOptions->tileSize - 1; i += step )
            {
                int x[4], y[4];
                x[0] = x[1] = i;
                x[2] = x[3] = i + step;
                y[0] = y[2] = j;
                y[1] = y[3] = j + step;

                if (j == 0  && (stitchFlags & STITCH_NORTH))
                {
                    // North reduction means rounding x[0] and x[2]
                    if (x[0] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        // Since we know we only drop down one level of LOD,
                        // removing 1 step of higher LOD should return to lower
                        x[0] -= step;
                    }
                    if (x[2] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        x[2] -= step;
                    }
                }

                // Never get a south tiling on a forward strip (always finish on 
                // a backward strip)

                if (i == 0  && (stitchFlags & STITCH_WEST))
                {
                    // West reduction means rounding y[0] / y[1]
                    if (y[0] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[0] -= step;
                    }
                    if (y[1] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[1] -= step;
                    }
                }
                if (i == (mOptions->tileSize - 1 - step) && (stitchFlags & STITCH_EAST))
                {
                    // East tiling means rounding y[2] & y[3]
                    if (y[2] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[2] -= step;
                    }
                    if (y[3] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[3] -= step;
                    }
                }

                //triangles
                if (i == 0)
                {
                    // Starter
                    *pIdx++ = _index( x[0], y[0] ); numIndexes++;
                }
                *pIdx++ = _index( x[1], y[1] ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( x[2], y[2] ); numIndexes++;

                if (i == mOptions->tileSize - 1 - step)
                {
                    // Emit extra index to finish row
                    *pIdx++ = _index( x[3], y[3] ); numIndexes++;
                    if (j < mOptions->tileSize - 1 - step)
                    {
                        // Emit this index twice more (this is to turn around without
                        // artefacts)
                        // ** Hmm, looks like we can drop this and it's unnoticeable
                        //*pIdx++ = _index( x[3], y[3] ); numIndexes++;
                        //*pIdx++ = _index( x[3], y[3] ); numIndexes++;
                    }
                }

            }
            // Increment row
            j += step;
            // Backward strip
            for ( i = mOptions->tileSize - 1; i > 0 ; i -= step )
            {
                int x[4], y[4];
                x[0] = x[1] = i;
                x[2] = x[3] = i - step;
                y[0] = y[2] = j;
                y[1] = y[3] = j + step;

                // Never get a north tiling on a backward strip (always
                // start on a forward strip)
                if (j == (mOptions->tileSize - 1 - step) && (stitchFlags & STITCH_SOUTH))
                {
                    // South reduction means rounding x[1] / x[3]
                    if (x[1] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        x[1] -= step;
                    }
                    if (x[3] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        x[3] -= step;
                    }
                }

                if (i == step  && (stitchFlags & STITCH_WEST))
                {
                    // West tiling on backward strip is rounding of y[2] / y[3]
                    if (y[2] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[2] -= step;
                    }
                    if (y[3] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[3] -= step;
                    }
                }
                if (i == mOptions->tileSize - 1 && (stitchFlags & STITCH_EAST))
                {
                    // East tiling means rounding y[0] and y[1] on backward strip
                    if (y[0] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[0] -= step;
                    }
                    if (y[1] % lowstep != 0)
                    {
                        y[1] -= step;
                    }
                }

                //triangles
                if (i == mOptions->tileSize)
                {
                    // Starter
                    *pIdx++ = _index( x[0], y[0] ); numIndexes++;
                }
                *pIdx++ = _index( x[1], y[1] ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( x[2], y[2] ); numIndexes++;

                if (i == step)
                {
                    // Emit extra index to finish row
                    *pIdx++ = _index( x[3], y[3] ); numIndexes++;
                    if (j < mOptions->tileSize - 1 - step)
                    {
                        // Emit this index once more (this is to turn around)
                        *pIdx++ = _index( x[3], y[3] ); numIndexes++;
                    }
                }
            }
        }


        indexData->indexBuffer->unlock();
        indexData->indexCount = numIndexes;
        indexData->indexStart = 0;

        return indexData;

    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01194     IndexData* TerrainRenderable::generateTriListIndexes(unsigned int stitchFlags)
    {

        int numIndexes = 0;
        int step = 1 << mRenderLevel;

        IndexData* indexData = 0;

        int north = stitchFlags & STITCH_NORTH ? step : 0;
        int south = stitchFlags & STITCH_SOUTH ? step : 0;
        int east = stitchFlags & STITCH_EAST ? step : 0;
        int west = stitchFlags & STITCH_WEST ? step : 0;

        int new_length = ( mOptions->tileSize / step ) * ( mOptions->tileSize / step ) * 2 * 2 * 2 ;
        //this is the maximum for a level.  It wastes a little, but shouldn't be a problem.

        indexData = new IndexData;
        indexData->indexBuffer = 
            HardwareBufferManager::getSingleton().createIndexBuffer(
            HardwareIndexBuffer::IT_16BIT,
            new_length, HardwareBuffer::HBU_STATIC_WRITE_ONLY);//, false);

        mSceneManager->_getIndexCache().mCache.push_back( indexData );

        unsigned short* pIdx = static_cast<unsigned short*>(
            indexData->indexBuffer->lock(0, 
            indexData->indexBuffer->getSizeInBytes(), 
            HardwareBuffer::HBL_DISCARD));

        // Do the core vertices, minus stitches
        for ( int j = north; j < mOptions->tileSize - 1 - south; j += step )
        {
            for ( int i = west; i < mOptions->tileSize - 1 - east; i += step )
            {
                //triangles
                *pIdx++ = _index( i, j ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( i, j + step ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( i + step, j ); numIndexes++;

                *pIdx++ = _index( i, j + step ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( i + step, j + step ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( i + step, j ); numIndexes++;
            }
        }

        // North stitching
        if ( north > 0 )
        {
            numIndexes += stitchEdge(NORTH, mRenderLevel, mNeighbors[NORTH]->mRenderLevel,
                west > 0, east > 0, &pIdx);
        }
        // East stitching
        if ( east > 0 )
        {
            numIndexes += stitchEdge(EAST, mRenderLevel, mNeighbors[EAST]->mRenderLevel,
                north > 0, south > 0, &pIdx);
        }
        // South stitching
        if ( south > 0 )
        {
            numIndexes += stitchEdge(SOUTH, mRenderLevel, mNeighbors[SOUTH]->mRenderLevel,
                east > 0, west > 0, &pIdx);
        }
        // West stitching
        if ( west > 0 )
        {
            numIndexes += stitchEdge(WEST, mRenderLevel, mNeighbors[WEST]->mRenderLevel,
                south > 0, north > 0, &pIdx);
        }


        indexData->indexBuffer->unlock();
        indexData->indexCount = numIndexes;
        indexData->indexStart = 0;

        return indexData;
    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01272     HardwareVertexBufferSharedPtr TerrainRenderable::createDeltaBuffer(void)
    {
        // Delta buffer is a 1D float buffer of height offsets
        HardwareVertexBufferSharedPtr buf = 
            HardwareBufferManager::getSingleton().createVertexBuffer(
            VertexElement::getTypeSize(VET_FLOAT1), 
            mOptions->tileSize * mOptions->tileSize,
            HardwareBuffer::HBU_STATIC_WRITE_ONLY);
        // Fill the buffer with zeros, we will only fill in delta
        void* pVoid = buf->lock(HardwareBuffer::HBL_DISCARD);
        memset(pVoid, 0, mOptions->tileSize * mOptions->tileSize * sizeof(float));
        buf->unlock();

        return buf;

    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01289     void TerrainRenderable::_updateCustomGpuParameter(
        const GpuProgramParameters::AutoConstantEntry& constantEntry, 
        GpuProgramParameters* params) const
    {
        if (constantEntry.data == MORPH_CUSTOM_PARAM_ID)
        {
            // Update morph LOD factor
            params->_writeRawConstant(constantEntry.physicalIndex, mLODMorphFactor);
        }
        else
        {
            Renderable::_updateCustomGpuParameter(constantEntry, params);
        }

    }
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
01305     int TerrainRenderable::stitchEdge(Neighbor neighbor, int hiLOD, int loLOD, 
        bool omitFirstTri, bool omitLastTri, unsigned short** ppIdx)
    {
        assert(loLOD > hiLOD);
        /* 
        Now do the stitching; we can stitch from any level to any level.
        The stitch pattern is like this for each pair of vertices in the lower LOD
        (excuse the poor ascii art):

        lower LOD
        *-----------*
        |\  \ 3 /  /|
        |1\2 \ / 4/5|
        *--*--*--*--*
        higher LOD

        The algorithm is, for each pair of lower LOD vertices:
        1. Iterate over the higher LOD vertices, generating tris connected to the 
        first lower LOD vertex, up to and including 1/2 the span of the lower LOD 
        over the higher LOD (tris 1-2). Skip the first tri if it is on the edge 
        of the tile and that edge is to be stitched itself.
        2. Generate a single tri for the middle using the 2 lower LOD vertices and 
        the middle vertex of the higher LOD (tri 3). 
        3. Iterate over the higher LOD vertices from 1/2 the span of the lower LOD
        to the end, generating tris connected to the second lower LOD vertex 
        (tris 4-5). Skip the last tri if it is on the edge of a tile and that
        edge is to be stitched itself.

        The same algorithm works for all edges of the patch; stitching is done
        clockwise so that the origin and steps used change, but the general
        approach does not.
        */

        // Get pointer to be updated
        unsigned short* pIdx = *ppIdx;

        // Work out the steps ie how to increment indexes
        // Step from one vertex to another in the high detail version
        int step = 1 << hiLOD;
        // Step from one vertex to another in the low detail version
        int superstep = 1 << loLOD;
        // Step half way between low detail steps
        int halfsuperstep = superstep >> 1;

        // Work out the starting points and sign of increments
        // We always work the strip clockwise
        int startx, starty, endx, rowstep;
        bool horizontal;
        switch(neighbor)
        {
        case NORTH:
            startx = starty = 0;
            endx = mOptions->tileSize - 1;
            rowstep = step;
            horizontal = true;
            break;
        case SOUTH:
            // invert x AND y direction, helps to keep same winding
            startx = starty = mOptions->tileSize - 1;
            endx = 0;
            rowstep = -step;
            step = -step;
            superstep = -superstep;
            halfsuperstep = -halfsuperstep;
            horizontal = true;
            break;
        case EAST:
            startx = 0;
            endx = mOptions->tileSize - 1;
            starty = mOptions->tileSize - 1;
            rowstep = -step;
            horizontal = false;
            break;
        case WEST:
            startx = mOptions->tileSize - 1;
            endx = 0;
            starty = 0;
            rowstep = step;
            step = -step;
            superstep = -superstep;
            halfsuperstep = -halfsuperstep;
            horizontal = false;
            break;
        };

        int numIndexes = 0;

        for ( int j = startx; j != endx; j += superstep )
        {
            int k;
            for (k = 0; k != halfsuperstep; k += step)
            {
                int jk = j + k;
                //skip the first bit of the corner?
                if ( j != startx || k != 0 || !omitFirstTri )
                {
                    if (horizontal)
                    {
                        *pIdx++ = _index( j , starty ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( jk, starty + rowstep ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( jk + step, starty + rowstep ); numIndexes++;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty, j ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty + rowstep, jk ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty + rowstep, jk + step); numIndexes++;
                    }
                }
            }

            // Middle tri
            if (horizontal)
            {
                *pIdx++ = _index( j, starty ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( j + halfsuperstep, starty + rowstep); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( j + superstep, starty ); numIndexes++;
            }
            else
            {
                *pIdx++ = _index( starty, j ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( starty + rowstep, j + halfsuperstep ); numIndexes++;
                *pIdx++ = _index( starty, j + superstep ); numIndexes++;
            }

            for (k = halfsuperstep; k != superstep; k += step)
            {
                int jk = j + k;
                if ( j != endx - superstep || k != superstep - step || !omitLastTri )
                {
                    if (horizontal)
                    {
                        *pIdx++ = _index( j + superstep, starty ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( jk, starty + rowstep ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( jk + step, starty + rowstep ); numIndexes++;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty, j + superstep ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty + rowstep, jk ); numIndexes++;
                        *pIdx++ = _index( starty + rowstep, jk + step ); numIndexes++;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        *ppIdx = pIdx;

        return numIndexes;

    }


} //namespace

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